Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Bipolar Disorder - Almost Forgotten Therapeutic Drug Targets in the Unfolded Protein Response Pathway Revisited

Author(s): Susanne A. Bengesser , Robert Fuchs , Nina Lackner , Armin Birner , Bernd Reininghaus , Nathalie Meier-Allard , Anika Stracke , Hans-Peter Kapfhammer , Eva Z. Reininghaus , Sandra Wallner-Liebmann .

Journal Name: CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets

Volume 15 , Issue 4 , 2016

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Abstract:

Bipolar Disorder (BD) is characterized by recurring mood swings, which are not completely understood yet. So far, it is an accepted theory that multiple factors contribute to pathogenesis of BD according to the vulnerability-stressmodel. This model combines on the one hand biological predisposing vulnerability, and on the other hand several chronic and acute stressful negative events as underlying mechanisms of BD. Recently, ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum) stress reached the spotlight of BD research again. The expression of the chaperone BiP (syn. GRP78/glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa), which is highly expressed in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), is upregulated by different kinds of mood stabilizers. These results implied that the ER, an organelle which is prone towards different kinds of cellular stress, might be involved in the pathophysiology of BD. This hypothesis was further strengthened by hypothesis driven genetic association studies, which showed significant association of BiP promotor polymorphisms with BD. Also other ER-stress associated genes like XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) or GRP94 (glucose-regulated protein, 94kDa, synonym for heat shock protein HSP90B1) were recently linked to BD in hypothesis driven gene association studies. In addition to the proteins mentioned before, our review focuses on further UPR (Unfolded Protein Response) related proteins associated with BD and raises the hypothesis that ER-stress may represent a common interface between BD and obesity which is overrepresented in BD patients. Finally, members of the UPR pathway are discussed as putative targets for mood stabilizers.

Keywords: Bipolar disorder, endoplasmic reticulum, endoplasmic reticulum stress, unfolded protein response, lithium, valproate.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2016
Page: [403 - 413]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1871527315666160321104613
Price: $58

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