Neurogenesis is maintained in both neonatal and adult brain, although it is dramatically reduced
in aged neurogenic brain region such as the subgranular layer and subventricular zone of the
dentate gyrus (DG). Astrocytes play important roles for survival and maintenance of neurons as well
as maintenance of neurogenic niche in quiescent state. Aβ can induce astrocyte activation which give
rise to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxic cytokines and chemokines, and subsequently
induce neuronal death. Unfortunately, the current therapeutic medicines have been limited to
reduce the symptoms and delay the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but not to cure it. Stem
cells enhance neurogenesis and Aβ clearing as well as improved cognitive impairment. Neurotrophins and growth factors
which are produced from both stem cells and astrocytes also have neuroprotective effects via neurogenesis. Secreted factors
from both astrocytes and neural stem cells also are influenced in neurogenesis and neuron survival in neurodegenerative
diseases. Transplanted stem cells overexpressing neurogenic factors may be an effective and therapeutic tool to enhance
neurogenesis for AD.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, stem cell based gene therapy, astrocyte, neurogenesis, regenerative medicine, transplantation.
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