Intestinal Inflammation and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Pp. 292-304 (13)
Chao Li and John F. Kuemmerle
Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are
characterized by uncontrolled inflammation of the intestine. Recent advances in the
pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease have identified over 160 genetic variants
conferring risk of disease. Analysis of the intestinal microbiome has also revealed
alterations in the diversity in the composition of commensal and pathogenic bacteria.
The combined effects of genetic polymorphisms and dysbiosis combine to result in
altered activation and regulation of the intestine’s innate immune and adaptive immune
systems that result in sustained inflammation. In this review we highlight advances that
have elucidated the complex alterations and interactions that shape the inflammatory
response of the intestine in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease.
Adaptive immunity, Bacterial antigen, Damage-associated molecular
pattern molecules, Gut microbiota, Innate immunity, Intestinal barrier function,
Pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules, Th1 cytokines, Th2 cytokines,
Th17 cytokines, Toll-like receptors, Treg cytokines.
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, VCU Program in Enteric Neuromuscular Sciences, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA, USA.