Angiogenesis is a complex process in which capillaries are produced from blood vessels
that already exists.. Endothelial cells (ECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are pivotal for this
process and for the maintenance/restorage of the endothelium. Decreased numbers and dysfunction of
these cells have been related to growing cardiovascular risks. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor
(PPAR) is a large family of nuclear receptors, characterized by three isotypes: α, β and γ. Numerous
studies have shown that PPAR activation is involved in the pathology of a wide range of cardiovascular
diseases and has a role in endothelial function, thrombosis and inflammation, etc., suggesting
that PPAR agonists may be good candidates to treat the cardiovascular disease. However, controversial results exist on
whether this nuclear receptor is inductive or depressive in the process of angiogenesis. Herein, this review will provide a
detailed discussion of the up-to-date investigation of the role of PPARs in angiogenesis, with particular reference to their
effects on angiogenesis-related cells—i.e., ECs, EPCs, vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs), macrophages and endometrial
cells—and will discuss the current and potential future applications of PPAR activators.
Keywords: Angiogenesis, endometrial cells, endothelial cells (ECs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), peroxisomeproliferator-
activated receptor (PPAR), vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs).
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