Nanoparticles in Health and Disease: An Overview of Nanomaterial Hazard, Benefit and Impact on Public Health Policy - Current State and Outlook
Pp. 176-255 (80)
Stanislav Janousek, Dagmar Jirova, Kristina Kejlova and Marketa Dvorakova
Nanotechnology is a new interdisciplinary platform for medical research offering a
novel experience in the disease treatment at the nanoscale level where most of the biological
molecules functionate. In this chapter we address the application of nanomaterials in human
life and medical practice which may anticipate a great impact on public and individual health.
Nanoparticles and nanotherapeutics have recently been regulated by a conventional
regulatory framework. The European Commission has worked out an Action Plan for Europe
“Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies” and has called on the Member States for its
implementation. Namely, the regulatory agency for responsibility, supervision, protection and
promotion of human (animal) health in the European Union (EMA) provides regulatory
guidance and authorization for the safety of nanomedicines. Interdisciplinary approaches are
recommended for the application of scientific results in practice with simultaneous strict
adherence to the Community legislative requirements on nanoproduct safety. The Report
recommends additional specialized expertise, together with adaptation of existing
methodologies and development of new methods for the evaluation of nanoproduct quality,
safety, efficacy and risk management. In this chapter we will focus on liposome-, nanocrystal,
virosome-, polymer therapeutic-, nanoemulsion-, and nanoparticle-based approaches to
nanotherapeutics, which represent the most successful and commercialized categories within
the field of nanomedicine. In addition, we will inform about generic nanotherapeutics and
pitfalls of similar colloidal-based nanoformulations. We will pay attention to topics such as
nanoparticles and nanomaterials in hematological and malignant disorders. Finally, we will
discuss consumer nanoproduct safety (or risks) as well as future directions in nanomaterial
commercialization, i.e. what are the forthcoming human (animal) health safety concerns and
how relevant is the potential negative impact on the environment, life cycle and living
systems when nanoproducts (and their use) are expected to be extended.
Nanomaterials, nanotherapeutics, nanoparticle safeties and toxicities,
public health policy, consumer products, ecotoxicology.
Center of Toxicology and Health Safety, National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42, Prague, Czech Republic.