Background: New medical approaches to the autonomic nervous system, such as catheterbased
renal denervation, have been introduced into clinical practice in the recent years for patients
who have resistant hypertension.
Objectives and Methods: We estimate the number of subjects in Japan who would benefit from renal
denervation when this treatment is introduced into Japan, based on data from the Jichi Medical University clinical trials.
We also discuss the logical basis of changing the formerly used primary endpoint, i.e., office BP, to 24-hr ambulatory BP
in future clinical trials.
Results: Among JAMP registry data, the total number of hypertensives was 5,858 and the patients who were prescribed
≥ 3 drugs including diuretics were 749. The poorly controlled hypertension rate was 32% in the group prescribed ≥ 3
drugs including diuretics and it constitutes 4.1% of the total hypertensive patients. We also analyzed the data of JMS
ABPM cohort study wave 1 (811 patients). The hazard ratios (HRs) for each 10-mmHg increase in BP was 1.38 (95%CI
1.17–1.63, p<0.001) for 24-hr BP and 1.18 (95%CI 1.05–1.33, p=0.006) for office BP. However, the significance for
office BP was lost once the 24-hr, daytime and nighttime ambulatory BP data were added to the covariates.
Conclusion: The prevalence of resistant hypertensive patients among all of the hypertensive patients is 4.1%. Based on
this prevalence, the number of resistant hypertensive individuals in Japan would be 1,870,000 patients. In future renal
denervation clinical studies in Japan, we should set the primary endpoint as a 24-hr systolic BP reduction measured by