Advances in Face Image Analysis: Theory and Applications

Advances in Face Image Analysis: Theory and applications describes several approaches to facial image analysis and recognition. Eleven chapters cover advances in computer vision and pattern ...
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Face Detection Using the Theory of Evidence

Pp. 181-216 (36)

Franck Luthon


Face detection and tracking by computer vision is widely used for multimedia applications, video surveillance or human computer interaction. Unlike current techniques that are based on huge training datasets and complex algorithms to get generic face models (e.g. active appearance models), the proposed approach using evidence theory handles simple contextual knowledge representative of the application background, via a quick semi-supervised initialization. The transferable belief model is used to counteract the incompleteness of the prior model due to lack of exhaustiveness in the learning stage.

The method consists of two main successive steps in a loop: detection, then tracking. In the detection phase, an evidential face model is built by merging basic beliefs carried by a Viola-Jones face detector and a skin color detector. The mass functions are assigned to information sources computed from a specific nonlinear color space. In order to deal with color information dependence in the fusion process, a cautious combination rule is used. The pignistic probabilities of the face model guarantee the compatibility between the belief framework and the probabilistic framework. They are the inputs of a bootstrap particle filter which yields face tracking at video rate. The proper tuning of the few evidential model parameters leads to tracking performance in real-time. Quantitative evaluation of the proposed method gives a detection rate reaching 80%, comparable to what can be found in the literature. Nevertheless, the proposed method requires a scanty initialization only (brief training) and allows a fast processing.


Belief function, Cautious rule, Classification, Computer vision, Conjunctive rule, Dempster-Shafer, Face tracking, Fusion of information, LUX color space, Mass set, Particle filter, Pattern recognition, Pignistic probability, Region of interest, Skin hue, Source of information, Transferable belief model, Uncertainty management, Viola-Jones detector, Visual servoing.


IUT de Bayonne Pays Basque, Université de Pau Pays d’Adour, 2 allée du parc Montaury, 64600, Anglet, France.