In the recent years we have been observing an increased incidence of type 1
diabetes in children and adolescents. This leads to a more frequent acute
complication of type 1 diabetes among children with hyperglycemia. The most
common of these is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), while cerebral edema is the most
dangerous. In children with DKA, cerebral edema most often presents with clinical
symptoms but may also appear in the so-called “subclinical” form. That is why the
search continues for new methods of assessing and monitoring cerebral edema in the
course of DKA treatment. Ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (US ONSD)
assessment is performed in various clinical scenarios when cerebral edema is
suspected. It is most often performed in adult patients but increasingly often in
children. US ONSD assessment is useful in the treatment of DKA in children with type 1 diabetes. This
manuscript provides an overview of research results available in PubMed and other available databases
on the course of treatment of DKA in children with type 1 diabetes.
Keywords: Cerebral edema, diabetic ketoacidosis, optic nerve sheath diameter, type 1 diabetes, ultrasonography, ultrasound.
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