Retinal Neurodegeneration in the Course of Diabetes-Pathogenesis and Clinical Perspective

Author(s): Aleksandra Araszkiewicz, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 14 , Issue 8 , 2016

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Abstract:

Diabetic retinopathy is generally considered as a microvascular disease which develops as a result of chronic hyperglycaemia. However, the neuronal apoptosis and reactive gliosis are recently postulated as early changes in diabetic retinopathy. This phenomenon is described as a neurodegeneration and suggests that diabetic retinopathy should be recognized as a neurovascular complication. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms leading to the neurodegeneration of the retina in diabetic patients including: low-grade inflammatory process, oxidative stress, activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, glutamate excitotoxicity and imbalance in the neuroprotective factors. Secondly, we point out the clinical significance of measuring the retinal neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, inflammatory process, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, retina.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 8
Year: 2016
Page: [805 - 809]
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X14666160225154536
Price: $58

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