Background: Gastrophysics is the science that pertains to the physical and physico-chemical description
of the empirical world of gastronomy, with focus on sensory perception in the oral cavity and how it is related to
the materials properties of food and cooking processes. Flavor (taste and smell), mouthfeel, chemesthesis, and astringency
are all related to the chemical properties and the texture of the food and how the food is transformed in
the oral cavity. Methods: The present topical review will primarily focus attention on the somatosensory perception
of food (mouthfeel or texture) and how it interacts with basic tastes (sour, bitter, sweet, salty, and umami) and
chemesthetic action. Results: Issues regarding diet, nutrition, and health will be put into an evolutionary perspective,
and some mention will be made of umami and its importance for (oral) health.