Clinical Significance of Umami Taste and Umami-Related Gene Expression Analysis for the Objective Assessment of Umami Taste Loss

Author(s): Noriaki Shoji, Shizuko Satoh-Ku riwada, Takashi Sasano.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 22 , Issue 15 , 2016

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Abstract:

Loss of umami taste sensation affects quality of life and causes weight loss and health problems, particularly in the elderly. We recently expanded the use of the filter paper disc method to include assessment of umami taste sensitivity, using monosodium glutamate as the test solution. This test showed high diagnostic performance for discriminating between normal taste function and disorders in sensation of the umami taste, according to established cut-off values. The test also revealed: (1) some elderly patients suffered from specific loss of umami taste sensation with preservation of the other four taste sensations (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter); (2) umami taste disorder caused a loss of appetite and decline in weight, resulting in poor health; (3) appetite, weight and overall health improved after appropriate treatment for umami taste disorder. Because of the subjective nature of the test, however, it may not be useful for patients who cannot express which taste sensation is induced by a tastant, such as those with dementia. Most recently, using tissue samples collected from the tongue by scraping the foliate papillae, we showed that evaluation of umami taste receptor gene expression may be clinically useful for the objective genetic diagnosis of umami taste disorders.

Keywords: Umami taste, taste disorder (hypogeusia), malnutrition, filter paper disc (FPD) method, taste receptor, gene expression.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 15
Year: 2016
Page: [2238 - 2244]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160216150511
Price: $58

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