Passive Targeting of Cyclophosphamide-Loaded Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles to Liver Impedes Breast Tumor Growth in a Syngeneic Model

Author(s): Snigdha Tiash, Md Ezharul H. Chowdhury.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 22 , Issue 37 , 2016

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Abstract:

Despite being widely used for treating cancer, chemotherapy is accompanied by numerous adverse effects as a result of systemic distribution and nonspecific interactions of the drugs with healthy tissues, eventually leading to therapeutic inefficacy and chemoresistance. Cyclophosphamide (Cyp) as one of the chemotherapeutic pro-drugs is activated in liver and used to treat breast cancer in high dose and in combination with other drugs. In an attempt to reduce the off-target effects and enhance the therapeutic efficacy, pH-sensitive carbonate apatite nanoparticles that had predominantly and size-dependently been localized in liver following intravenous administration, were employed to electrostatically immobilize Cyp and purposely deliver it to the liver for activation. Cyp-loaded particles formed by simple 30 min incubation at 37ºC of the DMEM (pH 7.4) medium containing CaCl2 and Cyp, enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity at different degrees depending on the cell types. The size of the particles could be tightly controlled by the amount of CaCl2 required to prepare the particles and thus the bio-distribution pattern inside different organs of the body. Unlike the small particles (~ 200 nm), the large size particles (~ 600 nm) which were more efficiently accumulated in liver, significantly reduced the tumor volume following intravenous injection in 4T1-induced murine breast cancer model at a very low dose (0.17 mg/Kg) of the drug initially added for complex formation, thus shedding light on the potential applications of the Cyp-loaded nano-formulations in the treatment of breast cancer.

Keywords: Cyclophosphamide, breast cancer, carbonate apatite, nanoparticles, bio-distribution, cytotoxicity, tumor regression, immunocompetent mouse.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 37
Year: 2016
Page: [5752 - 5759]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160211141918
Price: $58

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