Drought stress caused by unpredictable precipitation poses a major threat to food production worldwide, and its
impact is only expected to increase with the further onset of climate change. Understanding the effect of drought stress on
crops and plants' response is critical for developing improved varieties with stable high yield to fill a growing food gap
from an increasing population depending on decreasing land and water resources. When a plant encounters drought stress,
it may use multiple response types, depending on environmental conditions, drought stress intensity and duration, and the
physiological stage of the plant. Drought stress responses can be divided into four broad types: drought escape, drought
avoidance, drought tolerance, and drought recovery, each characterized by interacting mechanisms, which may together
be referred to as drought resistance mechanisms. The complex nature of drought resistance requires a multi-pronged approach
to breed new varieties with stable and enhanced yield under drought stress conditions. High throughput genomics
and phenomics allow marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS), which offer rapid and targeted improvement
of populations and identification of parents for rapid genetic gains and improved drought-resistant varieties.
Using these approaches together with appropriate genetic diversity, databases, analytical tools, and well-characterized
drought stress scenarios, weather and soil data, new varieties with improved drought resistance corresponding to grower
preferences can be introduced into target regions rapidly.