Evaluation of Novel Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury: The Possibilities and Limitations

Author(s): Branislava Medić , Branislav Rovcanin , Katarina Savic Vujovic , Danilo Obradovic , Dusan Duric , Milica Prostran .

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 23 , Issue 19 , 2016

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Abstract:

Despite the recent findings concerning pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, the mortality rate in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) remains very high. Early detection of patients with impaired renal function may help to ensure more aggresive treatment and to improve clinical outcome. Serum creatinine is still gold standard of kidney injury, although it is well known as an insensitive and unreliable biomarker (for example, its concentration does not increase significantly until about half of the kidney function is lost). Considering these data, researches and clinicians are making great efforts in the past decade in order to discover and validate novel AKI biomarkers. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), Interleukin-18 (IL-18), Cystatin C (Cys-C) are some of new, promising markers of kidney damage which are currently in the focus of preclinical and clinical studies. Recent data suggest that some of these new biomarkers represent important parametars of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and reliable predictors of development and prognosis of AKI. Beside that, monitoring of these markers could have significant importance for early diagnosis and clinical course, not only in patients with various forms of AKI and other renal diseases, but also in patients with cardiorenal syndrome, heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiothoracical surgical interventions, in the pediatric emergency setting etc.

The aim of this review is to summarize the literature data concerning some new biomarkers, evaluate their role as well as their limitations in the early diagnosis and predict clinical outcome of some renal diseases.

Keywords: Acute kidney injure (AKI), novel renal biomarkers, kidney injury molecule (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), cystatin C (Cys-C).

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 19
Year: 2016
Page: [1981 - 1997]
Pages: 17
DOI: 10.2174/0929867323666160210130256
Price: $58

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