Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Fibroblast
growth factor receptor (FGFR) is a tirosine-kinase receptor that is seen to be amplified or
mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and it plays a crucial role in tumour
development and maintenance.
The authors analyzed the state of the art of FGFR by reviewing the current literature. Fibroblast
growth factor (FGF)-FGFR pathway and their aberrations are described, with the evaluation of
their possible prognostic role in NSCLC and in particular in squamous cell carcinomas, in
which FGFR is more often amplified. New therapeutic agents targeting FGFR signaling have
been developed and are now in clinical evaluation.
Dysregulation of FGF signaling in tumour cells is related to FGFR gene amplification or
mutation, although it is still uncertain which of these aberrations represents a real predictor of
response to specific inhibitors. However, recent evidence has questioned whether FGFR is a real target in squamous
cell histology. The effectiveness of FGFR inhibitors is also still unclear since there are no clinical data on selected
patients. Moreover, the management of specific side effects related to inhibition of the physiological role of FGF
should be more thorough.