Chronic inflammation is characterized by longstanding microglial activation followed by
sustained release of inflammatory mediators, which aid in enhanced nitrosative and oxidative stress. The sustained release
of inflammatory mediators propels the inflammatory cycle by increased microglial activation, promoting their
proliferation and thus stimulating enhanced release of inflammatory factors. Elevated levels of several cytokines and
chronic neuroinflammation have been associated with many neurodegenerative disorders of central nervous system like
age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’ disease, and
tauopathies. This review highlights the basic mechanisms of neuroinflammation, the characteristics of neurodegenerative
diseases, and the main immunologic responses in CNS neurodegenerative disorders. A comprehensive outline for the
crucial role of microglia in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration and the role of Toll-like receptor signalling in
coexistence of inflammatory mechanisms and oxidative stress as major factors responsible for progression of
neurodegeneration have also been presented.
Keywords: Microglia, neurodegenerative disorders, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, toll-like receptors.
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