Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition with wide
range of phenotype the cause of this disorder is unknown, however, increased ovarian androgen
production including increased theca cell responsiveness to gonadotropin stimulation, increased pituitary secretion of
luteinizing hormone, and hyperinsulinemia have been suggested. Some known risk factors are ethnicity and environmental
factors including lifestyle and bodyweight.
Method: Relevant English language studies from January 1995 to September 2015 were identified, reviewed, synthesized
and discussed extensively.
Result: various forms of PCOS, and the underlying mechanisms; and highlights biochemical, morphological and
metabolic hallmarks of PCOS, including trends and emerging phenotypes; and presents a simplified synthesis that
integrates current understanding of biochemical and metabolic endocrinology of PCOS are summarized. As no generally
accepted criteria exist for its diagnosis, some existing diagnostic criteria that cut across different geographical regions are
Conclusion: Indeed, emerging evidence points that the severity of menstrual problems could serve as a predictor of the
like-hood of insulin resistance in women of reproductive age, suggesting the need for routine metabolic screening and
early intervention in PCOS.