Microparticles: A Pivotal Nexus in Vascular Homeostasis and Disease

Author(s): Ciaran M. McGinn, Brian F. MacDonnell, Chun Xu Shan, Robert Wallace, Philip M. Cummins, Ronan P. Murphy.

Journal Name: Current Clinical Pharmacology

Volume 11 , Issue 1 , 2016

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Abstract:

Microvesicles (MVs) are submicron intact particles released from the cellular membrane of eukaryotic cells. MVs can be sub-categorised into microparticles (MPs), which are between 100nm- 1micron in size, and exosomes, measuring less than 100nm. Once thought to be cellular debris, MPs are now known to play important biological effector functions. Their biogenesis and release are as a result highly regulated processes in response to cellular activation or stress, and apoptosis. MPs are now known to play a crucial role in maintaining physiological homeostasis and have been demonstrated to be involved in numerous biological processes, including inflammation, cardiovascular disease, immune response, cancer dissemination, coagulation and angiogenesis. Consequently, there is active interest in studying MPs, and their ‘cause and effect’ in the initiation and potentiation of various pathologies. Circulating levels, both quantitative and qualitative, of MPs is thought to be a reflective index of cardiovascular competence. Therefore, studies to understand the biological relevance of the various permutations and combinations of circulating MPs, their cellular origin and bioactive cargo may lead to increased understanding of the sequelae of CVD and associated diseases. This review synopsizes our current understanding of the role of MPs in cardiovascular disease, their biogenesis and effector function, and their future use as both diagnostic and prognostic indices of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Microparticles, exosomes, cardiovascular disease, diagnostics, microRNA, platelets, endothelial cells.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 11
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2016
Page: [28 - 42]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/1574884711666160122093527

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