Molecular Dissection of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion: Oxidative Stress and Cellular Events

Author(s): Branislav Rovcanin, Branislava Medic, Gordana Kocic, Tatjana Cebovic, Marko Ristic, Milica Prostran.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 23 , Issue 19 , 2016

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Abstract:

Ischemic reperfusion kidney injury (IRKI) is a complex pathophysiological event, which is the most common cause of the acute kidney injury. The key characteristic of IRKI is a reduction in glomerular filtration rate, which implies an underlying impairment in hemodynamic regulation. In recent decades, convincing evidence illuminated the molecular and pathological events in the acute kidney injury, revealing the role of ischemia/reperfusion, oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis and changes in gene expression which activate different signaling pathways. The cascade of inflammation events is a key mediator of IRKI, which includes the inflammation process, complement activation and mobilization of innate immunity. Oxidative stress represents the increased presence of various free radicals that cannot be buffered by the antioxidant capacity which comprises of enzymatic and non-enzymatic components. Renal tissue injury during ischemia/reperfusion comes as a result of membrane lipids peroxidation, oxidative damage of proteins and DNA and results in apoptosis and necrosis. It is evident from many studies that augmentation of the antioxidant defense mechanisms has a protective role on kidney tissue. In recent years, the importance of heat-shock proteins and MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis of IRKI has been revealed and there are promising indications that in future they could serve as diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets. Striking changes in global gene expression were shown, providing a great potential for fundamental understanding and clinical management of IRKI. The clinical outcome among patients with kidney transplantation will have the furthermost advance from the better understanding of the underlying molecular pathology of IRKI.

Keywords: Ischemic reperfusion kidney injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, antioxidant defense, mitochondria, heat-shock proteins, MicroRNAs, gene expresión.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 19
Year: 2016
Page: [1965 - 1980]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/0929867323666160112122858
Price: $58

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