Background: Several diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are being explored in heart failure.
GDF-15 belongs to the transforming growth factor (TGF-) cytokine family that is highly up
regulated in inflammatory conditions. We undertook this systematic review to summarize the current
evidence on the utility of GDF-15 as a biomarker in heart failure.
Design and Methods: Multiple electronic databases for studies that reported the association between
GDF- 15 and heart failure were searched using different electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Science
Direct, Springer Link, Scopus, Cochrane Reviews, and Google Scholar using pre-defined inclusion-
Results: Twenty one original studies were identified that included data from 20,920 study participants. GDF 15 was found
to be a strong prognosticator of all-cause mortality in heart failure patients. Several studies found the benefit of using
GDF-15 as a component of a multi-biomarker strategy in prognosticating patients with heart failure.
Conclusion: More studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular pathways involving GDF-15 and to see how knowledge
about GDF-15 can be used to make therapeutic decisions in the clinic.