Background: Animals’ venomous secretions or peptides obtained from those secretions
are used in the development of new therapeutic agents. The aims of this study were
to investigate antimicrobial and antiviral activity of four different venoms obtained from the
frog named Bufo arenarum and the snakes Crotalus atrox, Causus rhombeatus and Naja
Methods: Antimicrobial activities of the venoms tested against 9 bacteria, 1 yeast, 1 fungal species and 2 viral
species based on micro-well dilution assay and antiviral assay.
Results: Four different venoms were examined to evaluate the antimicrobial and antiviral activity against 9
bacteria, 1 yeast and 1 fungal and 2 viral species. None of the venoms exhibited anticandidal or antifungal activity.
However, all of the four venoms tested were found to have both antibacterial and antiviral activities.
Conclusion: This is the first study demonstrating that venoms of Crotalus atrox and Bufo arenarum have antibacterial
activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus subtilis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas spp. Antiviral
activities of 4 venoms against Poliovirus and Adenovirus were also investigated for the first time.