Uranium is the heaviest metal known as nuclear fuel, and employed in the production of
glass tinting compounds, ceramic glazes, gyroscope wheels, chemical catalysts and X-ray tube targets.
Inhalation and ingestion are two of the most usual ways of exposure. Uranium may be released into drinking water
through the mining leading to contamination. Uranium is able to damage the DNA by generation of free radicals and
acting as a catalyst in the Fenton reactions causing oxidative stress. In fact, reproductive system contains high amount of
polyunsaturated fatty acids, and therefore it is highly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sensitive to
uranium toxicity. Toxic effects of uranium are generally reported through different mechanisms of action including
inflammation, degeneration of testis, vacuolization of Leydig cells, spermatocytes necrosis, and oocyte dysmorphism. The
present article provides a comprehensive review of the recent findings mostly about the molecular and biochemical
toxicity of uranium on the reproductive system.
Keywords: Molecular mechanisms, oxidative stress, uranium toxicity, reproductive system, systematic review.
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