This review focuses on the possibilities for intraoperative processing and isolation of
autologous cells, particularly atrial appendage-derived cells (AADCs) and cellular micrografts, and
their straightforward use in cell transplantation for heart failure therapy. We review the potential of
autologous tissues to serve as sources for cell therapy and consider especially those tissues that are
used in surgery but from which the excess is currently discarded as surgical waste. We compare the inculture
expanded cells to the freshly isolated ones in terms of evidence-based cost-efficacy and their usability as gene- and
RNA therapy vehicles. We also review how financial and authority-based decisions and restrictions sculpt the landscape
for patients to participate in academic-based trials. Finally, we provide an insight example into AADCs isolation and
processing for epicardial therapy during coronary artery bypass surgery.
Keywords: Autologous cell transplantation, Gene therapy, RNA therapy, Minimal cell manipulation, Cardiac micrografts.
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