Endothelial dysfunction is principally characterized by impaired endothelium–
dependent transduction mechanisms related to vascular relaxation, as an
outcome of decreased release of endothelium–derived relaxing factors, mainly nitric
oxide, as well as augmented oxidative stress, increased inflammation and predominance
of vascular action produced by endothelium–derived contracting factors.
Current data strongly suggest that pathological development of different types
of kidney impairment with further progression to renal failure includes notable vascular
changes associated with endothelial dysfunction. In accordance, this scientific
field represents an advancing area of investigation, involving different biomarkers
of endothelial dysfunction linked to renal impairment, as well as clinical findings
with new information that can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of endothelial
dysfunction in kidney disease. With regards to quoted facts, the aim of this article was to review the
latest data related to endothelial dysfunction and renal failure by selection of relevant articles released
from 2010 to 2015.
Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction, renal failure, kidney disease, kidney injury, cardiorenal syndrome, diabetic
nephropathy, graft failure, glomerular sclerosis.
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