Novel Therapeutic Targets for Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: current state-of-the-art on systemic arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis

Author(s): Elisardo C. Vasquez, Agata L. Gava, Jones B. Graceli, Camille M. Balarini, Bianca P. Campagnaro, Thiago de Melo C. Pereira, Silvana S. Meyrelles.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 17 , Issue 4 , 2016

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Abstract:

The usefulness of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is well known, first for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and more recently for pulmonary hypertension. The discovery that PDE5 is present in the systemic artery endothelium and smooth muscle cells led investigators to test the extra sexual effects of sildenafil, the first and most investigated PDE5 inhibitor, in diseases affecting the systemic arteries. Cumulative data from experimental and clinical studies have revealed beneficial effects of sildenafil on systemic arterial hypertension and its target organs, such as the heart, kidneys and vasculature. An important effect of sildenafil is reduction of hypertension and improvement of endothelial function in experimental models of hypertension and hypertensive subjects. Interestingly, in angiotensin-dependent hypertension, its beneficial effects on endothelial and kidney dysfunctions seem to at least in part be caused by its ability to decrease the levels of angiotensin II and increase angiotensin 1-7, in addition to improving nitric oxide bioavailability and diminishing reactive oxygen species. Another remarkable finding on the effects of sildenafil comes from studies in apolipoprotein E knockout mice, a model of atherosclerosis that closely resembles human atherosclerotic disease. In this review, we focus on the promising beneficial effects of sildenafil for treating systemic high blood pressure, especially resistant hypertension, and the endothelial dysfunction that is present in hypertension and atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, angiotensin, sildenafil, PDE, endothelial dysfunction, systemic hypertension.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2016
Page: [347 - 364]
Pages: 18
DOI: 10.2174/1389201017666151223123904
Price: $58

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