Neurodegenerative disorders are one of the most critical public health concerns of our times. Regrettably,
therapeutic interventions currently available have shown only partial benefits to patients affected by one of
these disorders. Although the important advances made during the last decades, several questions regarding
physiopathological aspects of these diseases are still open. On this regard, the role of neuroinflammation is recognized
as critical during the establishment and progression of the neurodegenerative process, and several authors
have suggested that neuroinflammatory modulation should be at the basis of therapeutic treatment. In the present review we summarize
the general aspects of the neuroinflammatory process and the cellular component of such response whose have been commonly related
with the main neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, as well as, the main molecular events that
might trigger the inflammatory process and affect neuronal support structures, such as the blood brain barrier, leading to neurodegeneration.
Additionally, we discuss recent advances regarding Nuclear Receptors research, such as peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors
and liver X receptor, and the molecular basis of its potential role against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.