Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are risk factors for diabetes, cancer, some cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases. Pharmacotherapy should be used when the body mass index (BMI) exceeds 30 kg/m² or 27 kg/m² with comorbidity. Efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy depend on the mechanism of action of drugs. In this context, drugs affecting the central and peripheral mediator systems such as cannabinoid receptor antagonists (Rimonabant), neuronal reuptake inhibitor of NE and 5 HT (Sibutramine), neuronal reuptake inhibitor of NE 5-HT DA (Tesofensine), agonist of 5 HT 2C receptors (Lorcaserin) have a high risk of side effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems when used for a long period. Apparently, the drugs design targeting obesity should screen safer drugs that affect fat absorption (Orlistat), activate energy metabolism (Adipokines), inhibit MetAP2 (Beloranib) and other peripheral metabolic processes. The use of synergies of anti-obesity drugs with different mechanisms of action is an effective approach for developing new combined pharmaceutical compositions (Contrave®, EmpaticTM, Qsymia et al). The purpose of this article is to review the currently available anti-obesity drugs and some new promising trends in development of anti-obesity therapy.
Keywords: Treatment of obesity and MS, pharmacotherapy of obesity, lorcaserin, tesofensine, sibutramine, orlistat, rimonabant, beloranib,
Contrave®, EmpaticTM, qsymia, adipokines, liraglutide.
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