Vaccination has become one of the most promising immunotherapeutic approaches in the prevention
and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related neuropathological hallmarks. Numerous immunotherapeutic
interventions have attempted to achieve adaptive immunity against A with a range of different antigenic designs
and immunomodulatory strategies, most of them with great success in AD mouse model studies. Most of these studies have shown that
both active and passive immunization can drastically reduce amyloid deposition and prevent the decline in cognitive performance. New
approved clinical trials are under investigation to test the effectiveness of those different vaccination approaches, although previous data
showed modest clinical success with some adverse inflammatory events in immunized elderly patients. The search for new approaches to
overcome these severe side effects has led to novel technical methods such as live vector or DNA vaccines, although the use of innovative
adjuvants combined with selected amyloid peptides is among the most auspicious. In this review, we compare and discuss the past
and contemporary vaccines and the future strategies that may lead to a viable improvement in AD prevention and treatment.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, vaccine, immunotherapy, animal models, neurodegeneration, amyloid-beta plaques.
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