Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and over the past decades, it has become a major cause of
morbidity and mortality affecting the youth and middle-aged as it is the fourth leading cause of disease
related to death. In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes the severe pathogenesis cause micro vascular complications:
nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and macro vascular complications: cardiovascular
disease, heart attacks and stroke. Under hyperglycemia, activation of different signaling mechanisms
such as an increased polyol pathway, advanced-glycation end product formation, activation of Protein
Kinase C and hexosamine pathway leads to the over expression of reactive oxygen species and causes pathogenesis of
diabetic complications. It is necessary to understand these pathways in diabetic complications causing damage to the secondary
system of the body. In the past decade the understanding of these biochemical changes has increased tremendously
and various molecules have been exploited as therapeutic targets for diabetic complications as better therapeutic approach.
In this review, a brief overview about diabetes mellitus and chronic complications with their current understandings of
cellular/molecular mechanisms and targeted therapies along with novel therapeutic strategies is discussed.
Keywords: Diabetes, complications, signaling mechanisms, anti-diabetic agents, targeted therapies.
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