Experimental and Clinical Advances in Immunotherapy Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury Target on MAIs and Their Receptors

Author(s): Xiu-Min Lu, Jing-Xiang Wei, Lan Xiao, Ya-Hai Shu, Yong-Tang Wang.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 22 , Issue 6 , 2016

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Abstract:

In the injured adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), the failure of axonal regeneration is thought to be attributed, at least in part, to various myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs), such as Nogo, myelinassociated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) around the damaged site. Interestingly, these three structurally different inhibitors share two common receptors, Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) and paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), and transduce the inhibitory signal into neurons via their complex combinant and co-receptors, such as p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), Nogo receptor-interacting protein 1 (LINGO-1), and TROY. Accordingly, targeting of the whole myelin or just portions by immunization has been proved to be neuroprotective and is able to promote regeneration in the injured spinal cords. In the past few years, vaccine approaches were initially achieved and could induce the production of antibodies against inhibitors in myelin to block the inhibitory effects and promote functional recovery in spinal cord injury (SCI) models by immunizing with MAIs, such as purified myelin, spinal cord homogenates, or their receptors with the concept of protective autoimmunity formulated. However, for safety consideration, further work is necessary before the immunotherapy strategies can be adopted to treat human injured spinal cords.

Keywords: Immunotherapy, spinal cord injury (SCI), myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs), Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), Nogo-66 receptor (NgR), paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), Nogo receptor-interacting protein 1 (LINGO-1).

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2016
Page: [728 - 737]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666151204000855
Price: $58

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