Age-associated cognitive decline and dementia are conditions in which there is deterioration in memory,
thinking, and behavior, with profound effects on the ability to perform everyday activities and well-being. Even if
dementia mainly affects older persons, it is not a normal part of aging. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60–75% of
dementia cases. The number of persons affected will increase in the next decades in parallel with aging of the world
population. Hence, unless some approach is found to reduce age-related deterioration of cognitive functions, health
care costs will continue to rise exponentially. There is a wealth of epidemiological evidence supporting a relationship
between diet and Alzheimer's disease, and suggesting that the risk of cognitive decline may be reduced by dietary
interventions. It has been proposed that adopting a healthy diet and lifestyle that improves cardiovascular function
may help delaying the onset of Alzheimer's disease due to its potential association with vascular disease. Several
nutrients, dietary components, supplements and dietary patterns have been reported in relation to their association
with cognition and with the development of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. The possible effect of diet on the prevention
of dementia is of tremendous scientific and general interest, because hitherto there is no definitive evidence of any effective pharmacological
treatment for dementia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence for the effects of some dietary components, supplements,
and dietary patterns as neuroprotective, with potential to delay cognitive decline and the onset of dementia.
Keywords: Nutrition, Cognitive decline, Alzheimer, Aging, Diet, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Supplement.
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