This review covers the compounds isolated from marine sponges with neuroprotective activities
during the period between 1999 and 2014 based on their chemical structures, collections sites, sponge taxonomy
and neuroprotective effects. These compounds were isolated from marine sponges collected from 18
countries, most of them in Indonesia, followed by Japan. A total of 90 compounds were reported to exhibit a
range of neuroprotective efficacy. These compounds were shown to inhibit β-site amyloid precursor protein
(APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), modulate the synthesis or activity of some neurotransmitters such as acetylcholinesterase
and glutamate, enhancement of serotonin, reducing oxidative stress, inhibition of kinases
and proteases, and enhancement of neurite growth. None of them have yet progressed into any marine pharmaceutical
development pipeline, therefore sustained researches will be required to enhance the potential of
utilizing these compounds in the future for prevention and therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid beta, marine sponge, natural products, nerve
growth factor, neurodegenerative diseases, neuroprotection, oxidative stress, tau protein.
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