Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Heart Failure

Author(s): Alyssa Riley, Daniel J. Gebhard, Ayse Akcan-Arikan.

Journal Name: Current Cardiology Reviews

Volume 12 , Issue 2 , 2016

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Abstract:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is very common in pediatric medical and surgical cardiac patients. Not only is it an independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in the short run, but repeated episodes of AKI lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) especially in the most vulnerable hosts with multiple risk factors, such as heart transplant recipients. The cardiorenal syndrome, a term coined to emphasize the bidirectional nature of simultaneous or sequential cardiac-renal dysfunction both in acute and chronic settings, has been recently described in adults but scarcely reported in children. Despite the common occurrence and clinical and financial impact, AKI in pediatric heart failure outside of cardiac surgery populations remains poorly studied and there are no large-scale pediatric specific preventive or therapeutic studies to date. This article will review pediatric aspects of the cardiorenal syndrome in terms of pathophysiology, clinical impact and treatment options.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, cardiorenal syndrome, chronic kidney disease, congenital heart surgery, pediatric heart failure

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Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2016
Page: [121 - 131]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1573403X12666151119165628

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