Cardiopulmonary interactions are present but inconsequential in humans with normal cardiac
and respiratory function; however, in the presence of significant impairment in either system, the
importance of the interplay between cardiovascular and pulmonary systems cannot be overstated. This
review will discuss the physiologic underpinnings and consequences of these interactions in patients
with heart failure.
Keywords: Cardiopulmonary interactions, heart failure, mean systemic pressure, pediatrics, transmural
pressure, ventricular afterload.
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