Background: Energy consumption is one of the most critical issues that is considered in designing
and improving routing protocols in wireless sensor networks; since the sensor nodes are equipped
with limited amount of energy, and recharging these nodes is almost impossible, reducing energy consumption
and raising the lifetime of wireless sensor networks has gained increasing attention from researchers.
Methods: In this paper, we present a Network Energy Saving Algorithm (ESA) for extending the lifetime
of wireless sensor networks by coordinating active and sleeping nodes according to their residual energy,
and topological state for each node. ESA is implemented and combined with the leach routing protocol in
wireless sensor networks. The underlying motivation is to further decrease the power dissipation, balancing
power dissipation between nodes and maximizing the network life time. We also reviewed a number
of papers in recent patents in computer science from 2008 to 2014.
Results: In order to estimate the efficiency of our suggested algorithm, we compared our outcomes to the
well standard algorithm (LEACH) which is implemented on OMNeT++ simulator. Several performance
metrics were used in our evaluation including Average Residual Energy, Rounds until First Node Dies, and
Rounds until Half nodes die, and Percentage of High Energy Nodes. The simulation results present improved
performance of ESA in terms of total power consumption and number of live nodes of the network system
over LEACH, K-Means and direct methods. On average, ESA increases Average Residual Energy by
22.4%, and decreases Standard Deviation for Average Energy by 40%. We also found that ESA increases
the number of Rounds until First Node Dies and Until Half Nodes Die by 3.1 times and 88%, respectively.
Finally, we observe that ESA increased the percentage of High Energy Nodes by 3.5 times.
Conclusion: It is necessary in wireless sensor networks to decrease the energy consumption of sensor
networks by making certain computations and operations for this purpose; the cost of computation is less
than the cost of transmitting data even if the computation is done on the sensor nodes themselves. Many
energy saving algorithms for wireless sensor networks have been proposed in the recent years. In this
paper, a network energy saving algorithm, (ESA) is proposed, which depends on the residual energy for
the node and its topological state to determine the time for sleeping and keeping active.