Cardiovascular diseases are currently a basic cause of mortality in highly developed countries. The major
reason for genesis and development of cardiovascular diseases is atherosclerosis. At the present time high technology
methods of molecular genetic diagnostics can significantly simplify early presymptomatic recognition of patients
with atherosclerosis, to detect risk groups and to perform a family analysis of this pathology.
A Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology can be characterized by high productivity and cheapness of full
genome analysis of each DNA sample. We suppose that in the nearest future NGS methods will be widely used for
scientific and diagnostic purposes, including personalized medicine.
In the present review article literature data on using NGS technology were described in studying mitochondrial genome mutations associated
with atherosclerosis and its risk factors, such as mitochondrial diabetes, mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, diabetic nephropathy and
left ventricular hypertrophy.
With the use of the NGS technology it proved to be possible to detect a range of homoplasmic and heteroplasmic mutations and mitochondrial
genome haplogroups which are associated with these pathologies. Meanwhile some mutations and haplogroups were detected
both in atherosclerosis and in its risk factors. It conveys the suggestion that there are common pathogenetic mechanisms causing these pathologies.
What comes next? New paradigm of crosstalk between non-pharmaceutical (including molecular genetic) and true pharmaceutical approaches
may be developed to fill the niche of effective and pathogenically targeted pretreatment and treatment of preclinical and subclinical
atherosclerosis to avoid the development of chronic life-threatening disease.