Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic
medications. Canagliflozin was the first drug approved in this group in 2013 and subsequently
dapagliflozin was approved in January 2014 and empagliflozin was approved in August 2014.
Preclinical studies have demonstrated safety, tolerability, and efficacy in terms of glycemic control
and HbA1c level in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in comparison to other anti-diabetic
drugs. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently released a warning that some of the
patients who used SGLT2 inhibitors developed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Empagliflozin has
showed safety in type 2 diabetics with renal impairment. Each of these medications can be used as a single treatment or in
combination with other anti-diabetic medications.
Keywords: Anti-hyperglycemic agents, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, fasting plasma glucose, sulphonylureas, sodium
glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, SGLT2, type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, urinary glucose excretion.
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