Sperm Guidance: Comparison with Motility Regulation in Bikont Species
Pp. 349-389 (41)
Kazuo Inaba, Osamu Kutomi, Kogiku Shiba and Jacky Cosson
Sperm chemotactic behavior is based on the control of swimming direction.
Transient conversion of the asymmetry in the flagellar waveform is the most used
regulatory mechanism to change the swimming direction. Direct regulation of outer
arm dynein by a neuronal calcium sensor type of Ca2+-binding protein, calaxin, is a
prerequisite for the regulation of chemotaxis. Bikont species, such as green algae,
brown algae, dinoflagellates, ciliates and excavates, also show similar directional
movements, including phototaxis, chemotaxis, and responses to mechanical stimuli.
These behaviors depend on changes in flagellar motility in response to the gradient or
direction of chemical or physical stimuli. However calaxin is not present in bikont
species; instead they appear to use another Ca2+-sensor similar to the outer arm dynein
light chain LC4 in Chlamydomonas. In this chapter, we briefly describe the mechanism
of sperm chemotaxis, compare it with flagellar regulation seen in several taxis of bikont
species, many of them model species for understanding flagellar mechanics, and
discuss the common and divergent strategies tuning the control of flagellar response
during eukaryotic taxis.
Algae, Bikont, Calaxin, Calcium, Chemotaxis, Chlamydomonas,
Ciliate, Dinoflagellate, Euglena, Opisthokont, Phototaxis, Trypanosoma.
Shimoda Marine Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 5-10-1, Shimoda, Shizuoka, 415-0025 Japan.