Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary bone tumor in the pediatric age group. Its aggressive local
growth pattern and its high propensity to metastasize, mainly to the lungs, give the disease an unfavorable prognosis
that has situated this disease as one of the leading causes of pediatric cancer death. Current protocols for osteosarcoma
treatment are based on neo-adjuvant (pre-operatory) chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of
the tumor and a new phase of adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite the progress that these protocols have made in improving
the outcome of the disease, the limited access of drugs to bone tumor and metastases, their indiscriminate
distribution in the organism, the high required doses that cause intolerable toxicity and the development of multidrug resistance, still represent
a major challenge. Nanotechnology has emerged as a new strategy to successfully address these problems by the development of
nanoscaled drug carriers that present the ability to target the drug to the tumor cells, achieving high drug concentrations in the tumor area,
while decreasing its presence in healthy tissues and therefore its potential systemic toxicity. This review summarizes the different lipid
nanocarriers developed to deliver first and second-line anti-osteosarcoma drugs as well as emerging agents in the treatment of this disease.
Moreover, it also discusses the potential of these nanocarriers for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
Keywords: Osteosarcoma, lipid nanoparticles, drug delivery, chemotherapy, doxorubicin, methotrexate.
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