Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the most effective post
remission treatment for leukemia, resulting in lower relapse rates than alternative therapies. However,
it is limited by the lack of suitable human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched donors and high
rates of transplant-related morbidity and mortality. Cord blood transplantation (CBT) and haploidentical
SCT (haplo-SCT) expand the potential donor pool but are also associated with major complications.
Co-infusion of third-party donor stem cellswith a CBT/haplo-SCT, which is called “dual transplantation,”
has been reportedto improve the outcome of HSCTby accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution and reducing
the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In addition, infusion of HLA-mismatched donor granulocyte
colony-stimulating factor–mobilized donor peripheral blood stem cellsafter chemotherapy, the so called “microtransplantation”,
has been shown to promote the graft–versus-leukemiaeffect and hasten hematopoietic recovery without amplifying
GVHD. Herein, we review recent advances in stem cell therapy for leukemia with a specific focus on dual transplantation
Keywords: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cord blood, haploidentical, microtransplantation.
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