Traumatic brain injury (TBI) imposes horrendous neurophysiological alterations leading to most devastating forms
of neuro-disability. Which includes impaired cognition, distorted locomotors activity and psychosomatic disability in both
youths and adults. Emerging evidence from recent studies has identified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as one of the promising
category of stem cells having excellent neuroregenerative capability in TBI victims. Some of the clinical and animal
studies reported that MSCs transplantation could cure neuronal damage as well as improve cognitive and locomotors behaviors
in TBI. However, mechanism behind their broad spectrum neuroregenerative potential in TBI has not been reviewed yet.
Therefore, in the present article, we present a comprehensive data on the important attributes of MSCs, such as neurotransdifferentiation,
neuroprotection, axonal repair and plasticity, maintenance of blood-brain integrity, reduction of reactive
oxygen species (ROS) and immunomodulation. We have reviewed in detail the crucial neurogenic capabilities of MSCs in
vivo and provided consolidated knowledge regarding their cellular remodeling in TBI for future therapeutic implications.