The flow of powders can often play a critical role in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products.
Many of these processes require good, consistent and predictable flow of powders to ensure continuous production
of pharmaceutical dosages and to ensure their quality. Therefore, the flow of powders is of paramount importance
to the pharmaceutical industry and thus the measuring and evaluating of powder flow is of utmost importance. At
present, there are numerous methods in which the flow of powders can be measured. However, due to the complex
and environment-dependant nature of powders, no one method exists that is capable of providing a complete picture
of the behaviour of powders under dynamic conditions. Some of the most commonly applied methods to
measure the flow of powders include: density indices, such as the Carr index and Hausner ratio, powder avalanching,
the angle of repose (AOR), flow through an orifice, powder rheometry and shear cell testing.
Keywords: Powder flow, Carr index, Hausner ratio, powder avalanche, angle of repose, flow through an orifice, powder rheometer, shear
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