Background: Canopy light environment plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. Gasdischarge
lamps (GDLs) are typically used in controlled-environment crop production system for
illuminating crops. GDLs have broad emission spectra and heat-up significantly during operation. The
advent of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has provided the means for developing a lighting system for
growing crops that is more power-economical and customizable than the conventional lighting
systems. LED treatments with specific irradiation wavelengths and intensities may trigger
photoreceptors to induce desired morphological and physiological changes in the crops.
Objective: The present review describes the advantages of LEDs over the conventionally used GDLs
from the perspective of its implementation in controlled-environment crop production along with its
working principle and potential.
Methods: Various food crops and ornamental plants were grown in controlled-environment chambers under LED
treatments of various wavelengths. A variety of parameters including morphological, physiological and biochemical were
studied to assess the impact of LEDs on plant growth and development.
Results: Salient features of controlled-environment plant growth experiments conducted with LEDs as the light source
have been summarized, outlining the variety of responses exhibited by different plant species to specific LED treatments.
Conclusion: LED lighting systems are capable of providing customized light treatments to improve yield and enhance
various qualitative traits in different crop species. The studies are thus indicative of the potential of LEDs as the next
generation light source for controlled-environment crop production.