Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in developed
countries and second to cervical cancer in India. Endometrial cancer predominately affects post
menopausal women; however 15-25% of cases are diagnosed before menopause. Endometrial cancer
is not amenable to screening, hence needs to be managed effectively as soon as diagnosis is made.
Though quite a lot of studies have been conducted in this area, still there are controversies regarding
few issues in its management. We decided to review the current literature on use of imaging techniques
in diagnosing and assessing loco regional spread, mode of surgery, role of lymphadenectomy in
early stage disease including sentinel lymph node status, adjuvant treatment and fertility preservation
in women with endometrial cancer. Transvaginal ultrasound and MRI help in diagnosing the disease as well as locoregional
spread of the tumor. Laparoscopy is replacing the conventional laparotomy without any increase in complication
rate. Robotic technology being new has not been critically evaluated. Role of lymphadenectomy in early disease is still
controversial. Only few studies have assessed the place of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of endometrial
cancer. Fertility preservation in young women is the need of the hour and has been used with successful pregnancy outcome.
There is need for more randomized controlled trials to clarify certain issues regarding management of endometrial
cancer and on-going trials such as PORTEC3 and LACE may answer these queries.
Keywords: Adjuvant therapy, endometrial cancer, laparoscopy, laparotomy, lymphadenectomy, robotic surgery.
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