Inhalation of aerosolized compounds is a popular, non-invasive route for the targeted delivery of
therapeutic molecules to the lung. Various types of nanoparticles have been used as carriers to facilitate drug
uptake and intracellular action in order to treat lung diseases and/or to facilitate lung repair and growth. These
include polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, and dendrimers, among many others. In addition, nanoparticles are
sometimes used in combination with small molecules, cytokines, growth factors, and/or pluripotent stem cells.
Here we review the rationale and state-of-the-art nanotechnology for pulmonary drug delivery, with particular
attention to new technological developments and approaches as well as the challenges associated with them, the
emerging advances, and opportunities for future development in this field.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, pulmonary delivery, inhalation, aerosolization, lung disease, lung repair, growth factors, stem cells.
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