Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease characterized by the development of multifocal plaque lesions
within vessel walls and extending into the vascular lumen. The disease takes decades to develop symptomatic lesions,
affording opportunities for accurate detection of plaque progression, analysis of risk factors responsible for
clinical events, and planning personalized treatment. Of the available molecular imaging modalities, radionuclidebased
imaging strategies have been favored due to their sensitivity, quantitative detection and pathways for translational
research. This review summarizes recent advances of radiolabeled small molecules, peptides, antibodies and
nanoparticles for atherosclerotic plaque imaging during disease progression.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis, molecular imaging, PET, SPECT, nanoparticle, peptide, radionuclide.
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