It is well established that aging is a significant risk factor for homeostatic imbalance, decline
in vascular regenerative capacity and development of vascular disease with progressive organ
dysfunction. Over the past decade therapeutic developments have improved the prognosis for those
with vascular disease, mortality rates have nevertheless remained actually unchanged. Clearly, there is
a need for alternative strategies for the treatment of vascular disease. Adipose tissue and bone marrow
have been shown to contain adult mesenchymal stem cells that have therapeutic applications in regenerative
medicine. In vivo experiments suggest that these cells are capable of replacing ischemic damaged
tissues. The potential use of cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis has been proposed as an alternative
treatment solutions for age-related vascular disease. This review outlines the current knowledge
about adipose tissue and bone marrow as a sources of stem and progenitor cells, these cells contribution
to ischemic damaged tissues regenerative processes and factors that may affect their decreased function in aging individuals.
Moreover, it was described the cell-based therapeutic strategies that are currently being tested in clinical trials as
well as clinical outcomes demonstrated after cell transplantation and emphasize possible mechanisms counteracting
pathophysiological events of ischemia.
Keywords: Age-related vascular disease, adipose tissue, adipose tissue-derived stem cells, bone marrow, bone marrow mononuclear
cells, growth factors, ischemic tissues regeneration, therapeutic angiogenesis.
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