Bladder cancer - a propensity that is associated with high recurrence and
mortality rates. Various molecular alterations are reflected by diverse cellular
morphological manifestations and vast tumor heterogeneity. Many biomarkers have
been described that have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use, but
most still remain investigational. The question how molecular markers can support
surveillance of different patient groups is still a matter of controversy. However, it can
be expected that major advancement in the understanding of molecular pathways
involved in urothelial carcinogenesis will enable improved patient management. The
scope of this review is to discuss the established diagnostic tests and urinary
biomarkers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer.
Keywords: Bladder cancer, Biomarkers, Cytology.
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