In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of neurocognitive mechanisms in
depression and their fundamental theories. We first introduce follow-up studies and biomarkers of
cognitive impairment in depression, and then we review important findings in depression research
across major psychological function domains, including memory and executive function. We focus on
research regarding the neurobiological correlates of cognitive impairment in depression. Next, we
review several psychological models that may explain how cognitive impairment is related to
depression. Finally, we review the underlying neural, vascular, and integrated biological mechanisms
underlying cognitive impairment and depression.
Keywords: Cognition, cognitive impairment, depression, major depressive disorder, neurobiology, neuropsychology.
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