Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging in Breast Cancer Prognosis and Diagnosis
Pp. 3-35 (33)
Abdul-Hamid M. Emwas, Tony Antakly, Abdel-Hamid Saoudi, Suliman Al-Ghamdi and Hacene Serrai
Breast cancer (BC) has the highest occurrence and mortality of all cancers
that affect women with more than one million new cases each year across the globe.
BC accounts for about one-quarter of all cancer-related deaths. Even though breast
cancer is an aggressive and fatal disease, early detection and treatment can result in
increased survival in more than three-quarters of diagnosed patients. In general,
traditional diagnostic methods, such as ultrasonography and mammography,
considerably increase t survival rates due to early disease detection. Although these
traditional methods are useful, new strategies for early detection of breast cancer would
likely reduce breast cancer mortality rates. Additional diagnostic imaging modalities,
such as Computer Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and other
types of scintigraphy techniques, have been used to identify the primary source of the
cancer in metastatic cases, but none of these techniques is yet in routine clinical use.
Among other imaging methodologies, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic
Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) approaches
are powerful tools for uncovering cancer biomarkers. In this review, we consider the
current capabilities of magnetic resonance techniques in breast cancer research and
highlight some milestones that are necessary to move early detection of breast cancer
using such approaches into mainstream health care modalities.
Biomarker, Breast Cancer, Cancer, Diagnosis, HR-MAS NMR,
Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy,
Mammography, Metabolomics. Metabolites, Mortality, Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Prognosis, Tomography,
Spectroscopy, Utrasonography, World Health Organization.
Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Gent, University Hospital Gent (UZG), Medische Beeldvomming, 2K12D, De Pintelaan 185 - 9000 Gent - Belgium.